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Laboratory
service guide

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A. Bacteriology:

Bacteriology tests include aerobic, micro aerophilic (where applicable) and anaerobic cultures. Identification of isolated species is carried out as far as possible. API ID kits are available for identification of Enterobacteriaceae & non-fastidious, non-enteric Gram negative rods. Sensitivity tests are performed on pure isolates. Different bacterial species on mixed growth are subcultured and separated on to fresh media in order to set up sensitivity tests.

Following antibiograms are offered:

Avian:

Marbofloxacin, Ceftazidime, Cephalexin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acids, Piperacillin/ Tazobactam, Doxycycline, Enrofloxacin, Clindamycin

Reptile:

Amikacin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acids, Ceftazidime, Enrofloxacin, Tobramycin, Oxytetra-cycline, Piperacillin, Piperacillin/Tazobactam

Mammalian:

Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acids, Cephalexin, Clindamycin, Enrofloxacin, Oxytetracycline, Streptomycin, Cotrimoxazole

Mammalian ear:

Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Fusidic acid, Polymyxin B, Gentamycin

Dolphin:

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acids, Cefuroxime, Ceftazidime, Cefixime, Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Moxifloxacin

Fish:

Gentamycin, Ceftazidime, Enrofloxacin, Cotrimoxazole, Metronidazole, Piperacillin, Piperacillin/Tazobactam

Metronidazole is added to the profile when an anaerobe is isolated. Please contact the laboratory if you prefer certain combinations of antibiotics to be included in the antibiogram.

B. Mycology:

Plucked hair, skin scrapes, swabs and tissue biopsies can be submitted for isolation of Aspergillus sp., yeasts & dermatophytes. Identification of fungi is provided on the basis of colony characteristics and microscopic morphology of the isolates. We do not offer fungal susceptibility testing.

C. Biochemistry:

Samples of serum and plasma should ideally be separated from cells before sending to avoid haemolysis. Severely haemolysed samples will not be tested without prior consent. Please indicate your preference for individual tests.

Following biochemical profiles are available:

Falcon:

Total proteins, Albumin, Globulin, Cholesterol, Uric acid, Bile acids, CK, AST

Parrot:

Total proteins, Albumin, Globulin, Uric acid, Bile acids, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, CK, AST, Alpha amylase, Calcium, Phosphorus

Feline:

Total proteins, Albumin, Globulin, Glucose, Urea, Creatinine, Bile acids, Total bilirubin, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, Calcium, Phosphorus

Canine:

Total proteins, Albumin, Globulin, Glucose, Urea, Creatinine, Bile acids, Total bilirubin, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, Alpha amylase, Calcium, Phosphorus

Camel:

Total proteins, Albumin, Globulin, Glucose, Urea, Creatinine, CK, AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron

Dolphin:

Total proteins, Albumin, Globulin, Glucose, Urea, Creatinine, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin, CK, AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron

All other mammalians:

Total proteins, Albumin, Globulin, Glucose, Urea, Creatinine, CK, AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, Calcium, Phosphorus

Reptile:

Total proteins, Albumin, Globulin, Uric acid, Urea, CK, AST, Calcium, Phosphorus

Following parameters are performed using I-stat dry chemistry analyzer:

  • Sodium
  • Chloride
  • Potassium
  • Ionised calcium
  • Total carbon dioxide
  • Urea
  • Creatinine
  • Glucose
  • Haemoglobin
  • Haematocrit

D. Haematology:

EDTA blood required for most species. Heparin whole blood required for reptiles since RBCs of most reptile species haemolyse in EDTA. Blood smears (in duplicates, preferably) made of freshly drawn blood without anticoagulant are required for morphology assessment.

Following parameters are included in complete haematology test:

Haemoglobin, PCV, RBC count, WBC count, WBC differential counts, cell morphology assessment, smear assessment for blood parasites and manual estimation of platelets.

Please contact laboratory for special citrated tubes if
ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) is required.

E. Cytology:

Microscopic examination of smears, impressions, biopsies and subsequent staining (Ziehl Neelsen, Modified Ziehl Neelsen, Gram's stain, rapid stain/Diff-Quick) done to observe Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, yeast cells, fungal hyphae, Mycobacterium, Chlamydophila, Brucella, Nocardia, and to detect inflammation and cellular changes. Cytology report includes microscopic observations, but not diagnosis.

Hair or skin microscopy includes KOH digestion overnight in which case the report will be given out the next day.

F. Parasitology:

We perform direct and sugar flotation for qualitative detection of parasitic ova and larvae. We offer Zinc Sulphate flotation for faecal samples, where Giardia species are suspected. Quantitative analysis/parasitic egg counts can be done on request by McMaster technique. Faeces should be sent as fresh as possible, but can be refrigerated if delayed for submission.

G. Toxicology:

Blood lead levels are measured using a special analyser. Heparin whole blood is required for this test.

H. Urine analysis:

Includes specific gravity (refractometer), protein/creatinine ratio (biochemistry analyzer), dipstick analysis (pH, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, RBCs). Urine sediment examination to detect WBCs, casts, crystals and epithelial cells. Bacterial culture & sensitivity can be done on requests.

For basic urine analysis, sample should not be left at room temperature for more than 2 hours (urine can be held up to 12 hours in refrigerator for bacterial culture). Ideally urine dip stick should be performed within one hour of collection.

I. Immunology:

A number of rapid tests to detect viral and parasitic infections, based on principles of ELISA and Immunochromatography are available.

J. Endocrinology:

A selection of hormone assays are done using immuno assay analyzer (ELISA).